Mario Berberan-Santos - Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular - Instituto Superior Tecnico http://web.ist.utl.pt/berberan
Wei Zhang, David J. Webb (Aston University, Institute of Photonics Technology)
Wei Zhang; David J. Webb
The humidity response of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs) has been studied. The characteristic wavelength of the grating is modulated by water absorption-induced swelling and refractive index change in the fiber. This work indicates that anisotropic expansion may exist in PMMA optical fiber, reducing the humidity responsivity of the grating and introducing uncertainty in the responsivity from fiber to fiber. By pre-straining a grating, one can get rid of this uncertainty and simultaneously improve the POFBG response time.
© 2014 Optical Society of America
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings have been used for measuring water activity of aviation fuel. Jet A-1 samples with water content ranging from 100% ERH (wet fuel) to 10 ppm (dried fuel), have been conditioned and calibrated for measurement. The PMMA based optical fiber grating exhibits consistent response and a good sensitivity of 59±3pm/ppm (water content in mass). This water activity measurement allows PMMA based optical fiber gratings to detect very tiny amounts of water in fuels that have a low water saturation point, potentially giving early warning of unsafe operation of a fuel system.
Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9157:
23rd International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors
The Bragg wavelength of a PMMA based fiber grating is determined by the effective core index and the grating pitch, which, in temperature sensing, depend on the thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients of PMMA. These two coefficients are a function of surrounding temperature and humidity. Amorphous polymers including PMMA exhibit a certain degree of anisotropic thermal expansion. The anisotropic nature of expansion mainly depends on the polymer processing history. The expansion coefficient is believed to be lower in the direction of the molecular orientation than in the direction perpendicular to the draw direction. Such anisotropic behavior of polymers can be expected in drawn PMMA based optical fiber, and will lead to a reduced thermal expansion coefficient and larger temperature sensitivity than would be the case were the fiber to be isotropic. Extensive work has been carried out to identify these factors. The temperature responses of gratings have been measured at different relative humidity. Gratings fabricated on annealed and non-annealed PMMA optical fibers are used to compare the sensitivity performance as annealing is considered to be able to mitigate the anisotropic effect in PMMA optical fiber. Furthermore an experiment has been designed to eliminate the thermal expansion contribution to the grating wavelength change, leading to increased temperature sensitivity and improved esponse linearity.
Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9128:
Micro-structured and Specialty Optical Fibres III
Controlling the water content within a product has long been required in the chemical processing, agriculture, food storage, paper manufacturing, semiconductor, pharmaceutical and fuel industries. The limitations of water content measurement as an indicator of safety and quality are attributed to differences in the strength with which water associates with other components in the product. Water activity indicates how tightly water is “bound,” structurally or chemically, in products. Water absorption introduces changes in the volume and refractive index of poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA. Therefore for a grating made in PMMA based optical fiber, its wavelength is an indicator of water absorption and PMMA thus can be used as a water activity sensor. In this work we have investigated the performance of a PMMA based optical fiber grating as a water activity sensor in sugar solution, saline solution and Jet A-1 aviation fuel. Samples of sugar solution with sugar concentration from 0 to 8%, saline solution with concentration from 0 to 22%, and dried (10ppm), ambient (39ppm) and wet (68ppm) aviation fuels were used in experiments. The corresponding water activities are measured as 1.0 to 0.99 for sugar solution, 1.0 to 0.86 for saline solution, and 0.15, 0.57 and 1.0 for the aviation fuel samples. The water content in the measured samples ranges from 100% (pure water) to 10 ppm (dried aviation fuel). The PMMA based optical fiber grating exhibits good sensitivity and consistent response, and Bragg wavelength shifts as large as 3.4 nm when the sensor is transferred from dry fuel to wet fuel.
In poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based optical fiber gratings (POFBGs), the temperature response is determined by thermal expansion and the thermo-optic effect of the fiber. Because thermal expansion introduces a positive change and the thermo-optic effect introduces a negative change in the Bragg wavelength of the POFBG, they cancel out each other to some extent, leading to reduced and varying temperature sensitivity. By pre-straining a POFBG, the contribution of thermal expansion can be removed, and, consequently, the temperature sensitivity of POFBG can be greatly enhanced. Theoretical analysis also indicates a reduced thermo-optic coefficient of POFBG due to restrained linear expansion that matches experimental results.
© 2015 Optical Society of America
Thermometry at the Nanoscale: Techniques and Selected Applications Royal Society of Chemistry, UK, pp 493-507
There is a need for sensing and measuring temperature within nanoscopic spaces for many scientific investigations and technological developments. The book provides the fundamentals as well as thorough discussions of the state of the art of each technique, its possibilities and limits for technological applications and future trends. This includes a wide overview of the applications of nanothermometry in electronics, optoelectronics and micro/nanonofluidics, heat transport, imaging and nanomedicine. The book will appeal to researchers from materials science, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry and biological sciences working on the development of new materials, materials characterisation/analysis and their applications.
Dual-sensing (temperature and one analyte) based on photoluminescence is presented in this chapter. After reviewing the basic definitions and concepts, sensing formats and luminescence measurement methods are discussed, as well as common probes and analytes. The structure and performance of selected dual platforms is examined. Future perspectives for nanosized and mobile platforms are also discussed.